15 FAQs About Battery Manufacturing Safety Testing

Before the battery reaches the user, battery safety testing is essential during battery manufacturing. This article introduces 15 common FAQs about battery manufacturing safety testing. Help everyone have a better understanding of battery safety.

1. Why do batteries need to undergo safety testing?

The role of battery safety testing is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

  1. Prevent accidents: Battery safety testing can detect potential dangerous factors that may occur during battery use. Allow battery manufacturers to promptly discover and solve safety hazards and prevent accidents.
  2. Improve product quality: Battery safety testing can evaluate the quality level of battery products and help battery manufacturers understand the advantages and disadvantages of their products. And can carry out product optimization and improvement promptly, improving product quality.
  3. Ensure user safety: Through the battery safety test, the safety of the battery can be ensured for users. Suppose there are potential safety hazards in the battery. In that case, the testers will promptly notify the battery manufacturer and take appropriate measures to avoid potentially dangerous situations that may cause harm to users.
  4. Improve corporate credibility: Battery safety testing can enhance a company’s credibility in the minds of consumers. Suppose a company can prove that the batteries it produces are safe. In that case, it will help increase consumers’ trust in the company and thus promote the company’s development.

2. What are the battery safety test items?

  1. Short circuit test
  2. Overcharge and over-discharge test
  3. Withstand voltage test
  4. Impact test
  5. Vibration test
  6. Heating test
  7. Fire test
  8. Temperature changing cycle test
  9. Trickle charging test
  10. Free drop test
  11. Low pressure test
  12. Forced discharge test
  13. Electric hot plate test
  14. Thermal shock test
  15. Needle prick test
  16. Extrusion test
  17. Heavy object impact test

3. What are the battery reliability test items?

  1. Cycle life
  2. Discharge characteristics at different rates
  3. Discharge characteristics at different temperatures
  4. Charging characteristics
  5. Self-discharge characteristics
  6. Storage characteristics
  7. Over-discharge characteristics
  8. Internal resistance characteristics at different temperatures
  9. Temperature cycle test
  10. Drop test
  11. Vibration test
  12. Capacity test
  13. Internal resistance test
  14. GMS test
  15. High and low temperature impact test
  16. Mechanical impact test
  17. High temperature and high humidity test

4. What is the standard overcharge resistance test in battery manufacturing?

IEC stipulates that the standard overcharge resistance test for nickel-metal hydride batteries discharges the battery to 1.0V/unit at 0.2C and continuously charges it continuously at 0.1C for 48 hours. The battery should have no deformation or leakage and should be discharged at 0.2C after overcharging. The time to 1.0V should be greater than 5 hours.

5. What is the IEC standard cycle life test in battery manufacturing?

IEC stipulates that the standard cycle life test of nickel-metal hydride batteries is:

After the battery is discharged to 1.0V at 0.2C

  1. Charge at 0.1C for 16 hours, then discharge at 0.2C for 2 hours and 30 minutes (one cycle)
  2. Charge at 0.25C for 3 hours and 10 minutes, discharge at 0.25C for 2 hours and 20 minutes (2-48 cycles)
  3. Charge at 0.25C for 3 hours and 10 minutes, then discharge to 1.0V at 0.25C (49th cycle)
  4. Charge at 0.1C for 16 hours, leave for 1 hour, discharge at 0.2C to 1.0V (50th cycle).
    For nickel-metal hydride batteries, after repeating 1-4 for a total of 400 cycles, the 0.2C discharge time should be greater than 3 hours; for nickel-cadmium batteries, repeating 1-4 for a total of 500 cycles, the 0.2C discharge time should be greater than 3 hours.

6. What is the standard charge retention test in battery manufacturing?

IEC stipulates that the standard charge retention test for nickel-metal hydride batteries is:

After the battery is discharged to 1.0V at 0.2C, it is charged at 0.1C for 16 hours, stored at a temperature of 20℃±5℃ and a humidity of 65%±20% for 28 days, and then discharged to 1.0V at 0.2C. NiMH batteries should last longer than 3 hours.

In China, national standards stipulate that the standard charge retention test for lithium batteries is:

(IEC has no relevant standards) The battery is discharged to 3.0/piece at 0.2C and then charged to 4.2V at 1C constant current and constant voltage, with a cut-off current of 10mA. After storage for 28 days at a temperature of 20℃±5℃, it is then charged at 0.2 Discharge C to 2.75V, calculate the discharge capacity, and compare it with the battery’s nominal capacity, which should be no less than 85% of the initial capacity.

7. What is a battery short circuit test?

Place a fully charged battery in an explosion-proof box and short-circuit the positive and negative terminals with a wire with < an internal resistance of ≤100mΩ. The battery should not explode or catch fire.

8. What are high temperature and high humidity tests in battery manufacturing?

The high temperature and humidity test of nickel metal hydride batteries is:

After the battery is fully charged, store it under certain temperature and humidity conditions for several days. Observe that there is no leakage during the storage process.

The high temperature and humidity test for lithium batteries is (China National Standard)

Charge the battery with 1C constant current and constant voltage to 4.2V, with a cut-off current of 10mA. Then, put it into a constant temperature and humidity box with a relative humidity of (40±2)℃ and a relative humidity of 90%-95% and leave it for 48 hours. Then, take out the battery and leave it for 2 hours at (20±5)°C. At this time, there should be no abnormality in the battery’s appearance. Then, discharge it to 2.75V with a constant current of 1C. Then, under (20±5)℃, perform a 1C charge and 1C discharge cycle until the discharge capacity is no less than 85% of the initial capacity. But the number of cycles shall not exceed three times.

9. What is the battery temperature rise experiment?

After the battery is fully charged, put it into the oven and heat it from room temperature at a rate of 5°C/min. When the oven temperature reaches 130°C, keep it for 30 minutes. The battery should not explode or catch fire.

10. What is a battery temperature cycle experiment in battery manufacturing?

The temperature cycle experiment contains 27 cycles; each cycle consists of the following steps:

  1. The battery is changed from normal temperature to 66±3℃ and 15±5% for 1 hour.
  2. Place it for 1 hour at a temperature of 33±3℃ and a humidity of 90±5℃.
  3. Condition changes to -40±3℃ and left for 1 hour
  4. Leave the battery at 25℃ for 0.5 hours

These 4 steps complete a cycle. After these 27-cycle experiments, the battery should have no leakage, alkali creep, rust, or other abnormal conditions.

11. What is a battery drop test in battery manufacturing?

After the battery or battery pack is fully charged, it is dropped from a height of 1m to the concrete (or cement) ground three times to obtain impacts in random directions.

12. What is a battery vibration experiment in battery manufacturing?

Ni-MH battery vibration experiment:

After the battery is discharged to 1.0V at 0.2C, it is charged at 0.1C for 16 hours. After leaving it aside for 24 hours, vibrate according to the following conditions:

Amplitude: 0.8mm

Make the battery vibrate between 10HZ-55HZ, increasing or decreasing at a vibration rate of 1HZ every minute.

The battery voltage change should be within ±0.02V, and the internal resistance change should be within ±5mΩ. (Vibration time is 90min)

Lithium battery vibration experiment:

After the battery is discharged to 3.0V at 0.2C, charge it to 4.2V with 1C constant current and constant voltage, with a cut-off current of 10mA. After leaving it aside for 24 hours, it vibrates according to the following conditions:

The vibration experiment was carried out with the vibration frequency from 10 Hz to 60 Hz and then to 10 Hz within 5 minutes as a cycle with an amplitude of 0.06 inches. The battery vibrates in three axes, each axis vibrating for half an hour.

The battery voltage change should be within ±0.02V, and the internal resistance change should be within ±5mΩ.

13. What is the impact test in battery manufacturing?

After fully charging the battery, place a hard rod across the battery. If a 20-pound weight is dropped from a certain height and hit on a hard rod, the battery should not explode or catch fire.

14. What is a penetration test in battery manufacturing?

After the battery is fully charged, drive a nail of a certain diameter through the center of the battery. Leave the nails inside the battery; the battery should not explode or catch fire.

15. What is a fire test in battery manufacturing?

The fully charged battery is placed on a heating device with a special shield and burned. A safe battery should have no debris that can penetrate the protective cover.

16. Summary

Battery safety testing is also key to improving battery quality. For battery manufacturers, product quality assurance requires producing high-performance batteries and ensuring that the batteries produced will not cause safety problems during use. Through battery safety testing, battery manufacturers can promptly discover and solve potential problems during production, thereby improving product quality and reliability. The batteries produced by Ufine Battery contain at least 8 safety tests, and Ufine Battery has passed CQC, KC, UL, CB, UN38.3, CE, and other certifications.

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Gerald

Electronic Engineering Writer

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