Foreword Polymer lithium-ion batteries are a type of lithium-ion battery. When comparing with other types of batteries, let's take a closer look at the advantages of polymer lithium-ion batteries, starting with the development of lithium-ion batteries, their composition, and the materials used in lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries' history Lithium-ion batteries have a long history of development, dating back to the 1970s when they were first proposed by M.S. Whittingham. The first commercial lithium-ion battery was introduced by Sony in 1991 and has since become the dominant technology in the rechargeable battery market.With the continuous advancement of technology, the energy density of lithium batteries has gradually increased, and their applications have become more and more widespread, such as smartphones, laptops, electric vehicles, and other fields.
Advantages compared with other batteries
Compared with lead-acid batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, and nickel-chromium batteries, lithium batteries have the following advantages:
1.High energy density. The energy density of lithium batteries is 3-4 times that of lead-acid batteries, 2 times that of nickel-metal hydride batteries, and about 1.5 times that of nickel-chromium batteries. This means that lithium batteries can provide longer endurance under the same volume and weight, providing more possibilities for the use of portable devices.
2.Low self-discharge rate. The self-discharge rate of lithium batteries is usually only 1-2% per month, while the self-discharge rate of nickel-metal hydride batteries is as high as 1-2% per day. This means that lithium batteries are more suitable for long-term storage and use.
3.No memory effect. Lithium batteries have no "memory effect", which means that they do not need to be fully discharged before charging, nor will they lose battery capacity due to frequent charging.
4.Long service life. The service life of lithium batteries is usually longer than that of nickel-metal hydride batteries and nickel-chromium batteries, which means that they are more suitable for high-intensity and long-term use.
However, they also have some disadvantages, such as safety issues related to thermal runaway and the use of flammable liquid electrolytes.
In this video, we demonstrate the thermal runaway of a lithium-ion battery during a needle puncture test conducted byUfinebattery Lab.During the test, we used a needle to puncture the positive electrode of the battery and observed its reaction. The result showed that the battery quickly heated up and reached its combustion point within a few seconds.We can clearly see that the battery generated a large amount of smoke and emitted a loud explosion sound. In addition, the battery also underwent obvious physical deformation.
Advantages of polymer lithium batteries
Polymer lithium batteries, on the other hand, are a type of lithium-ion battery that uses a solid polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte. This makes them safer and more stable than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Polymer lithium batteries also have a higher energy density and longer cycle life than other types of batteries.
Compared with other types of lithium-ion batteries, such as lithium cobalt oxide and lithium iron phosphate, polymer lithium batteries have several advantages. For example, they have a higher energy density, longer cycle life, and better safety performance. They are also more environmentally friendly due to the use of solid polymer electrolytes.
1.Customizable shape.In addition, polymer lithium batteries can be made into various shapes and sizes, making them suitable for a wide range of applications, such as electric vehicles, portable electronics, and energy storage systems.
2.Lighter and thinner.Polymer lithium batteries use polymer electrolytes, which are lighter and thinner than traditional liquid electrolytes, and can greatly reduce the volume and weight of the battery, making them more suitable for portable devices. 3.Higher safety. The melting point of polymer electrolytes is higher than that of traditional liquid electrolytes, which makes it more difficult to cause thermal runaway and thus improves the safety of the battery.
In conclusion, polymer lithium batteries are a superior type of battery due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and superior safety performance. As technology continues to improve, polymer lithium batteries are expected to become even more widely used in various applications.
The main materials of polymer lithium batteris
The main material system of polymer lithium batteries includes positive electrode materials, negative electrode materials, electrolytes, and separator materials.
Positive electrode materials are an important component of lithium-ion batteries, and they play a crucial role in the performance and safety of batteries. Currently, the main positive electrode materials used include lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide, and lithium manganese oxide.
Lithium cobalt oxide is one of the earliest materials applied to lithium-ion battery positive electrodes. It has high energy density and high cycle life, but it is expensive and poses safety risks, such as thermal runaway and explosion.
Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide is a new type of positive electrode material with high energy density, low cost, and good cycle life. Compared with lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide is more safe and reliable, but its capacity degradation is faster, and it needs more frequent charge-discharge cycles to maintain its performance.
Lithium manganese oxide is a relatively inexpensive positive electrode material with good stability and safety, but its energy density is lower, requiring more space to accommodate the same amount of energy.
The negative electrode material mainly uses graphite material, which has a stable structure, easy preparation, good conductivity, and reversible performance.
The electrolyte is another important component of polymer lithium batteries, mainly composed of polymer electrolytes, inorganic electrolytes, and mixed electrolytes. Polymer electrolytes have high ionic conductivity, low melting point, and high mechanical strength, which can greatly improve the safety and stability of batteries. Compared with traditional inorganic electrolytes, polymer electrolytes are lighter and thinner, effectively reducing the volume and weight of batteries.
The separator material is another important component of the battery, used to isolate the positive and negative electrodes and prevent short circuits and safety accidents. Currently, the main separator materials used include polypropylene and polyethylene, with stable performance, which can effectively isolate the positive and negative electrodes and ensure the normal operation of the battery.
Overall, the advantages of polymer lithium-ion batteries include their high energy density, lightweight design, and potential for improved safety. However, they may be less stable at high temperatures and have lower conductivity compared to traditional lithium-ion batteries. As technology continues to advance, it is likely that we will see further improvements in the performance and safety of polymer lithium-ion batteries.
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